Underground construction
The concept of the Gothic style introduced during the Renaissance as a contemptuous reference to medieval architecture. In the nineteenth century chronologically divided the Gothic in its early, Mature and…

Continue reading →

Modular construction: innovation or well forgotten old?
Today foreign professional media are literally full of information on a broad introduction into the practice of modular construction technology. Even at the recent Moscow forum "Cement. Concrete. Dry mixtures"…

Continue reading →

Architecture Rococo

Rococo, architecture rokokosaal (Rococo) style in art and architecture that originated in France during the Regency (1715-1723) and reached its climax during the reign of Louis XV, moved to other countries of Europe and dominated it until the 1780s.

The Rococo style of architecture was a continuation of the Baroque or, more precisely, its modification, corresponding to the Cutesy, frilly time.

He made the architecture of any new structural elements, but had used the old, not constraining themselves when consumed by any tradition and having in mind, principally, the achievement of decorative showiness. Distinguished by gracefulness, ease, intimate and flirtatious character.

Replacing heavy Baroque, Rococo was both a logical result of its development, and its artistic antipode. Baroque Rococo combines the aspiration to perfection of forms, however, if Baroque tends to the monumental solemnity, Rococo prefer grace and ease.

Darker colors and lush, heavy gilt Baroque decoration are replaced by bright colors – pink, blue, green, with lots of white details. Rococo is chiefly ornamental orientation; the name itself comes from combining two words: “Baroque” and “rocaille” (the motive of the ornament, intricate decorative pebbles and shells of the grottoes and fountains).
Rococo architecture aims to be light, friendly, playful at any cost; she doesn’t care about organic combination and the allocation of a building, nor about the appropriateness of their forms, and dispose of them with complete arbitrariness, reaching to the whim, avoiding strict symmetry, varies dismemberment and ornamental details and not stingy to waste the last.

The creatures in this architecture, straight lines and flat surfaces almost disappear or, at least, zamaskirovalis figural decoration; not carried out in its pure form, none of the established order; the column stretched, shortened and spirally twisted; their capitals are distorted Flirty amendments and additions, cornices placed above the eaves; pilaster high and huge caryatids prop up tiny ledges with highly forward outstanding cornice; roof gird on the edge vlachovice balustrades with balusters and placed at some distance from each other by the pedestals, on which are placed vases or statues; the pediments, representing the breaking of the convex and concave lines, also crowned with vases, pyramids, sculptures, trophies and other similar items.

Throughout, framed Windows, doors, wall spaces inside the building, in the ceiling, embarks on a course of intricate stucco ornamentation, consisting of swirls, vaguely reminiscent of a plant leaves, convex shields, correctly surrounded by the same tendrils, masks, floral garlands and festoons, shells, neordinarnyh stones (rocaille), etc.

Despite this lack of rationality in the use of architectonic elements, such moodiness, sophistication and burdened forms, the Rococo style has left many monuments that still seduce by their originality, luxury and convenience beauty, vividly transports us to the era of blush and white, flies and powdered wigs (hence the German name of style: Perückenstil, Zopfstil).

In architecture this style is found most vivid expression in the decoration of interiors. Sophisticated asymmetrical carved and moulded patterns, intricate swirls of interior decoration contrasted with the relatively simple appearance of buildings, such as the Petit Trianon, built at Versailles by the architect Gabriel (1763-1769.).

Born in France, the Rococo style spread rapidly to other countries thanks to the French artists working abroad, as well as publications of the projects of French architects. Outside France Rococo greatest prosperity was reached in Germany and Austria, where he absorbed the traditional elements of Baroque.

In the architecture of the churches such as the Church in Fitzenhagen (1743-1772.) (architect Neumann), spatial design, the solemnity of the Baroque combined with the usual exquisite Rococo sculptural and picturesque interior, creating the impression of lightness and fabulous abundance.

A proponent of Rococo in Italy – architect Tiepolo – contributed to its dissemination in Spain. As for England, there is the Rococo influenced mainly on applied art, such as inlay furniture and production of silver jewelry, and partly to the works of such masters as Hogarth or Gainsborough, whose refinement of images and artistic manner fully consistent with the spirit of the Rococo. The Rococo style was very popular in Central Europe until the late 18th century, while in France and other Western countries interest in him got weak in the 1860s By that time he was perceived as a symbol of lightness and was superseded by Neoclassicism.

As especially remarkable of these monuments, you can specify in France at the Palace of Versailles in Germany at the Dresden Zwinger, in Russia – in St. Petersburg the Winter Palace and some other buildings of the count Rastrelli. Interesting monument of the Rococo is considered to be Amalienburg pavilion of the Nymphenburg castle ([1]) in Bavaria.

Rococo: the Palace of Versailles

The Palace of Versailles was built by Louis XIII as a hunting Palace. 1661 “sun king” Louis XIV began to expand the Palace in order to use it as their permanent residence, as Frendscho uprising after accommodation in the Louvre began to seem to him dangerous.

Architects andré Le nôtre, and Charles Lebrun has updated and expanded the Palace in Baroque style and classicism. The entire facade of the Palace from the garden occupies a large gallery (Mirror gallery, the Gallery of Louis XIV), which by their paintings, mirrors and columns impresses. In addition to her noteworthy as it battles Gallery, the Palace chapel and the Palace theater.

All invoices relating to the construction of the Palace, preserved to our time. The amount takes into account all costs, is 25.725.836 livres (1 livre corresponded to 409 g of silver), which in total amounted to 10.500 tons of silver or 456 million guilders in 243 g of silver. Conversion to present value is almost impossible. Based on the price of silver is 250 Euro per kg, the construction of the Palace was consumed by 2.6 billion euros.

Based on the purchasing power of the Guilder as the then 80 Euro, built at a cost of 37 billion euros. Putting the cost of the construction of the Palace in relation to the state budget of France in the seventeenth century, it turns out the modern amount of 259,56 billion euros. These costs are amortized over 50 years, during which there was construction of the Palace of Versailles, finished in 1710.

Almost all orders are conducted through tenders, the expenses of the performers beyond what was originally named, was not paid. In times of peace to the building of the Palace of priors and the army. Finance Minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert was watching extreme frugality.

What today seems to many incredible luxury and extravagance, was built as cheaply as possible, resulting in the many fireplaces, closed the window and live in the Palace in winter was extremely uncomfortable.

The aristocracy, with the exception of close relatives of the Royal family, had to live in narrow rooms under the roof. Her forced presence at the court was an additional precaution by Louis XIV, which permitted himself thus full control over the activities of the aristocracy. Only when the yard was possible to get ranks or positions, and who left, lost their privileges.

Landscape Park of the Palace of Versailles is one of the largest and most important in Europe. It consists of many terraces that drop as the distance from the Palace. Flower beds, lawns, greenhouse, swimming pools, fountains and numerous sculptures represent a continuation of Palace architecture. In the Park of Versailles also housed several small tworzonych structures.

The winter Palace

The winter Palace in St. Petersburg – a monument of architecture of Russian Baroque. Built in 1754 – 1762 by the Italian architect B. F. Rastrelli. Palace for a long time (until 1918) was the winter residence of the Russian emperors, and from July to November 1917 served as the meeting hall of the Provisional government. In 1918 and in 1922 the building given to the State Hermitage. Winter Palace and Palace square form the core of the modern city and are one of the main objects of domestic and international tourism.

During the period 1711-1754 years in the city were built five winter palaces. The first “Winter home” for Peter was built in 1711 on the banks of the Winter canal, the second – on the site of the modern Hermitage theatre (1716-19 architect G. I. Mattarnovi, was rebuilt in 1720-ies by the architect D. Trezzini).

In 1732 Francesco Bartolomeo Rastrelli began building the third Winter Palace with facades on the Neva river and Palace square, which also was rebuilt several times. Fourth, a temporary wooden Winter Palace was built in 1755 Rastrelli at the corner of Nevsky Prospekt and the Moika river embankment (destroyed in 1762). Existing fifth Winter Palace built by Rastrelli in 1754-62 (on the site of the dismantled third) in the Baroque style.

The modern building has a square with an inner courtyard and facades facing the Neva, the Admiralty and Palace square. The splendor of the building is noted for the lush decoration of facades and premises. The main (South) penetrated by a passage arch.

The Palace has over 1000 rooms and variously-composed facades, the strong ribs of the projections, the accentuation of the stepped corners, changing the rhythm of the columns (by changing the intervals between the columns, Rastrelli then collects them in groups, strips, the plane of the wall) create the impression of a plastic power, unforgettable solemnity and splendor.

In the outer appearance of the Winter Palace, created as read the decree on its construction, “unified all-Russian glory” in his elegant, festive, clarity and simplicity of architectural masses, reveals the artistic intent Rastrelli – deep architectural relationship of the building with the city, the Neva, with all the character of the surrounding urban landscape, continuing in our days.

Complement the silhouette of the building sculptures and vases on the roof. They were originally carved in stone and replaced with a metal one in the years 1892-1902 (sculptors M. Popov, D. I. Jensen). “Disclosed” composition of the Winter Palace is a kind of Russian processing type closed Palace buildings with a courtyard, common in the architecture of Western Europe.

"Plastic technology" in ancient structures
Variant of mechanical (or manual) processing of the stone in the cases shown in the photo below is not applicable, as cannot be explained. I'm not dismissing it completely. It…


Modular construction: innovation or well forgotten old?
Today foreign professional media are literally full of information on a broad introduction into the practice of modular construction technology. Even at the recent Moscow forum "Cement. Concrete. Dry mixtures"…

Continue reading →