Pyramids of Egypt — a unique creation of mankind
From Cairo to Fayum oasis among the hot Sands has a plume of mysterious buildings created by human hands. The pyramids of Egypt are one of the biggest mysteries of mankind. This is a huge structure of stone in the shape of pyramids were built as tombs for the rulers of ancient Egypt. The principle of their construction is identical — inside a mastaba (“home after life”) has an underground chamber for burial, outside surrounded by high stone buildings.
In total in Egypt is more than a hundred large and small pyramids. Some of them have a stepped configuration, some perfectly smooth. They are located on the banks of the Nile, near Cairo, which in ancient times was called the Memphis. The most famous pyramids of Egypt are situated on the edge of the desert plateau of Giza, on the outskirts of Cairo.
Pyramids of ancient Egypt:
The largest pyramid of Egypt . sometimes called the Great pyramid of Cheops (Khufu), the second Pharaoh of the fourth dynasty. Pharaoh Cheops lived about 2551 — 2528 years BC, so this is one of the oldest structures that have survived to our times. Historians claim that in ancient times the pyramid of Cheops reached up to 146 m, Sachse the upper part is destroyed and the current height is 137 m.
To build the great pyramid of Cheops, it took 2.3 million blocks of stone, each weight reached 2.5 tons, maybe more. Slaves faces of the pyramid-builders were faced with polished slabs of fine-grained Sandstone. It is widely believed that this pyramid was the tomb of Cheops, but there are facts that contradict this statement, for example: the burial chamber had no decorations (although you cannot otkidach option of robbing), the roughly hewn sarcophagus and finally ready, and cover it absent inside of the pyramid into the air, which should not be. So the only hypothesis does not yet exist. The original entrance to the pyramid was accessible from its Northern side at the level of the 13th row of granite slabs. But now it is closed and to get inside by hole, which, most likely, was left by the robbers.
The second largest pyramid of ancient Egypt . located in the district of Giza — pyramid of Khafre (Harry). It was built 40 years later at a distance of 160 m from the pyramid of Cheops. The height of the structure initially is 145 m, in our time is 136 m. Near the summit preserved basalt veneer. Inside the pyramid there is a temple which is located at the bottom. It is square-shaped and built with enormous blocks of granite. Before the gates of the temple was the pier to which moored ships, sailing on the Nile. The entrance to it was guarded by four sphinxes. In the middle is something like a platform (obviously once stood a statue of the Pharaoh). From the entrance parted the narrow corridors leading into the hall with 16 monolithic granite columns, which housed 23 statues of the Pharaoh, made of slate, diorite and alabaster. From holes in the ceiling burst the sun’s rays, which are separately highlighted each of the statues.
The pyramid structure is quite simple Harry. There are two cameras and two entrances on the North side.
The burial chamber is located on the axis of the pyramid. It has a width of 14.2 m (from East to West) and 5 km (North to South), the height is 6.8 m so far in this cell is an empty sarcophagus with a broken lid. Almost the entire volume of the pyramid is a limestone blocks, free space is only about 0.01%.
The rest of the pyramids of Egypt . included in the complex of Giza, the largest are comparatively small. These include the Pyramid of menkaure (menkaura), named after a grandson of Cheops. Located at a distance of 200 meters from the pyramids of Chephren. The height is 62 m, the length of a side is almost 109 m, initially was higher at 4 m, the length of the sides remains the same. Veneer base and top made of red Aswan granite, the middle part of the height is covered with slabs of white Tura limestone. The burial chamber is quite small (6.5 m x 2.3 m and 3.5 m tall), located under the base at depths greater than 6 m were used In its construction as large blocks. In 1837 Briton Howard Vance found a basalt sarcophagus, a wooden coffin, human shaped bones. But all that stuff went to the bottom of the sea for transport in England along with the ship.
In front of the pyramid of menkaure are three smaller pyramids-companions, one of them was meant hammer-Shti II, the wife of menkaure. Overall, probably due to the haste of construction, the combination of these mini pyramids remained bad.
The great pyramids of Giza are not the only one in the country. There are many other structures that are not very well preserved, sometimes representing large hills and piles of stones. Regardless of the status of all the pyramids of Egypt are of inestimable historical value.
If you take into account the dimensions, in addition to the already described large pyramids of Cheops and mycerinus, may be noted and Broken Pink pyramid, a pyramid in the Madama and the pyramid of Djoser and hubs. The first three were built for the pharaohs, who belonged to the IVth dynasty, the last, the most ancient for pharaohs of dynasty III.
The red pyramid is Dushore. It was built for the Pharaoh Sneferu (on the blocks of a covering of red paint is written the name of the Pharaoh). In size second only to the pyramids at Giza of Cheops and Chephren. This tomb has the correct pyramidal shape, its walls are strongly sloping. For the reason that the blocks of the pyramid in the setting sun have a characteristic pink color, pyramid, and got its name. The initial altitude of about 110 m, today it is less than 105 m.
Broken pyramid is also in Dushore. Its structure is attributed to the Pharaoh, the founder of the IV dynasty, Sneferu, also known as the “dynasty builders of the pyramids”. The pyramid has a rather bizarre “cut” or “broken” form. On the theory of Egyptologist Ludwig Burkhard, due to the unexpected death of Pharaoh her angle was dramatically changed for the speedy finishing of the work. Another important difference pyramid that besides the traditional entrance from the North, there is another entrance from the West. Initial height — 104,7 m, today — 101,1 m.
Pyramid in Meduma is located about 100 km South of Cairo. Was built for Pharaoh Hoony, who was the last ruler of the third dynasty. Built of limestone blocks in the form of a 7-speed (later a son Hoony, Snir increased the number of stages to 8). Nowadays you can see only three of them. The structure height was approximately 93 m, today the figure is 65 m.
The first pyramid of ancient Egypt the stepped type is the Pyramid of Djoser, which was built for the second Pharaoh of the III dynasty. Located to the North-East of the ancient Memphis, Saqqara, 15 km from Giza. Date of construction — 2670 BC, the construction height of 62 m. looks like a few stacked on other blocks in the form of mastabas (tombs of Ancient Egypt). The architect of this pyramid was Imhotep. It was he who developed way of masonry of hewn stone for the construction of the pyramids, for which he was later assimilated by the Egyptians to the image of the deity.
Pyramid hubs (Layer pyramid) is located a few miles from Sakkara. At the moment it is almost completely destroyed. The basis of the structure — the pyramidal hill of limestone, covers an area of 10 000 sq. m. Now its height is 17 m. the Author of the pyramid is the penultimate Pharaoh of the III dynasty Hub.
The major pyramids of ancient Egypt were built during the reign of the pharaohs of IV dynasty, which was considered the classic builders of such structures. But with the end of their reign construction has not stopped, although the scale of the buildings has significantly decreased. Among the pyramids of the later period include structures such as: Userkaf Pyramid, the Pyramid of Sahur and Neferefre, the Pyramid of Neferirkare and Niuserre, the Pyramid of Senusert I, the Pyramid of Unis, the Pyramid piopy II, the Pyramid of amenemhat I Pyramid-amenemhat I
All the pyramids of Egypt are monuments undoubtedly severe and, to some extent, useless labor of a huge number of slaves which forces worked hard to build tombs for Egyptian kings. These unique structures were built for the ages and now amaze visitors with its majestic appearance and for many years will be to attract increased attention.