The Architecture Of The East
Eastern architecture, architecture vostoklada of Asia is a mountainous region with plenty of wood and stone. A wooden column, standing on a stone plinth here becomes the main architectural element.
In the upper part of the fortified cities (fortifications had separate quarters) there was the Palace, which led to stairs and ramps. The thick walls of the city had a double gate. Buildings, as a rule, were not symmetrical, but is based on a rectangular layout scheme.
Many of the architects of the Hittite Empire reflected the influence of the Cretan-Mycenaean culture and, in turn, influenced her. The prototype of the Lion gate of Mycenae can be found in the ruins of the Hittite capital Hattushash; on the territory of the Hittites formed a hall of Megaron type – the main topic of the development of Greek temple architecture.
A huge influence on the development of Greek and Roman architecture has influenced buildings of the Phoenicians: the island city tyre, a port and fortress of Carthage.
At the beginning of the first Millennium BC broke up the Hittite power and formed several small States: Lycia, Caria, Lydia, and others In Lycia preserved typical front facades of the rock tombs, placed one above the other in several floors and in the forms reproduced elements of buildings with a wooden structure. Preserved and separately standing monolithic structures of funerary character.
Phoenicia occupied a narrow strip of land between the Mediterranean sea and the Lebanese mountains. The Phoenicians – great sailors and skilled merchants, and inhabited the more remote parts of the coast of the Mediterranean, down to Spain and Morocco.
Entering into business contacts with many peoples, the Phoenicians and adopted elements of the architecture. In this regard, their architecture becomes mixed.
Historically an important element of Phoenician architecture was the capital with the volutes found in Cyprus, the forms of which were later adopted by the Greeks and became a model for the creation of ionic capitals.
Using beautiful Lebanese cedar wood and bronze shields are of excellent quality, the Phoenician master became widely known.
They were entrusted with the most responsible jobs in the construction of Solomon’s temple in Jerusalem.
Cultural history in this region begins in the fifth Millennium BC. and, obviously, is in conjunction with the development of Mesopotamian culture. As in Asia Minor, the Iranian plateau was a lot of stone and wood, which determined the character of the local architecture, which, despite the Egyptian, Assyrian and Greek influences, had maintained the original features.
The period of greatest flowering of Persian art, the youngest in the ancient East, themselves at the time of the Achaemenid dynasty and lasts a relatively short time (200 years), starting from the middle of VI century BC, when a powerful Persian state.
In the life of Persians, who idolized the fire, air, water and land, the temple played such a large role, such as the Egyptians. There were only small, similar to the tower, square in plan, the temples, built of dressed stone and decorated with a scalloped relief.
The Royal tombs are in nature, away from cities. This is the mausoleum belonging to the VI century BC It is a rectangular building, set on a pedestal of seven steps and having the end in the form of a gable roof, is considered to be the tomb of king Cyrus.
Preserved Royal rock tombs near Persepolis. An example would be the tomb of Darius I, the front façade of which is carved on a rock, plays the entrance portico of the Palace.
The most significant architectural monuments of that time include the city and the Royal palaces, reminiscent of the city and the palaces of the Assyrians, more spacious, sprawling.
Emergency setesnast Mesopotamian cities, has a simple explanation: when huge yields of the irrigated lands (crop of “60” was frequent) every hundred square meters of land has become extremely valuable. As shown by studies in recent decades (including aerial photography), with the exception of the citadel and temple complexes, the area of the town itself and the suburb with its gardens and small fields was actually merged.
The columns of the Palace in Persepolis have a height of 20 m, and the column reaches the height of 5.5 m. Slender column with complex shape in small-caps is a typical element of the façade and interior of the Palace. The column shaft has a flute, the basis of the shape of a bell. The column is completed with a sculptural image of two bulls. The form of the capitals and the long distance between the columns indicate that they relied on wooden beams.
Scale Palace complexes, built on raised decks with sweeping staircase, is commensurate with a large internal room. Typical are seemingly endless rows of columns, giving the facades and the internal space of the rhythmic structure, underlined with long horizontal lines of the edges of slabs – entablatures.