Gothic cathedrals of France
The name “Gothic art” (from Italian. gotico — “Gothic”, the name of a Germanic tribe is ready) emerged in the Renaissance. “Gothic” in those days meant “barbarian” in contrast to “Roman”: the Gothic was called art that did not follow the ancient traditions, and therefore, had no interest for his contemporaries. This view had changed only in the XIX century when the middle Ages was no longer considered the “dark ages” in the history of mankind. However, the name “Gothic” was preserved for the European art of the late middle Ages. In various European countries, the Gothic style had its own characteristics and time frame, but it flourished in the XIII—XIV centuries In the history of art, it is customary to distinguish early, Mature (high) and late (“flamboyant”) Gothic
Gothic developed in countries dominated by the Catholic Church, and under the auspices of the feudal and ecclesiastical foundations remained in the ideology and culture of the Gothic era. Goticheskaya remained a predominantly cultic in purpose and religious topics: it was correlated with eternity, with “higher” irrational forces.
Gothic rose gradually from the Romanesque style rendering it almost invisible innovations. She was born in Northern France (Ile-de-France) in the mid-12th century and flourished in the first half of the 13th century
In Gothic France organically intertwined lyricism and tragic affects, sublime spirituality and social satire. Turn to the Gothic style began with architecture, and only then began to spread to sculpture and painting
Thirty years of the XII century were a time of rapid growth of French culture. The face of France changed greatly. Many churches burned down, but in their place new ones are being built.
It was during this era when confronted different views could arise in Gothic art with the richness of his images, constrained by the single dogma of the Catholic Church. During this time did not stop communication with Byzantium. It is XIII century, preserved the most perfect monuments of Gothic architecture, gradually reborn fueled by new aesthetic ideals of the Gothic forms continue to live up to the beginning of the XIV century.
The pursuit of beauty indicating the freshness of the senses and intelligence is always a characteristic of the era of the rise of high culture, it is inherent in Gothic art up to the end of the XIII century. its Highest expression was the Gothic Church, with its unity of architectural images which included both plastic and pictorial decoration.
Unlike the Romanesque period centers of European religious, cultural, political and economic life by the end of XII century were not monasteries, and the city’s Main public building of the medieval city, its Cathedral, designed not only for worship but also for meetings of the local community. Cathedrals were supposed to hold all of the numerous urban population. Before the churches were made by the preachers, held discussions with Professor and students. Arranged here and theatrical religious performances. They built cathedrals urban wizard (and not the monastery, as before). The citizens themselves were often the customers or creators of works of art for decoration of cathedrals.
Which became a Metropolitan municipality architecture of cathedrals embodied the essential features of medieval ideology, the theological ideas of the grandeur and harmony of the universe, social organization (hierarchical structure of society). Rising high above the roofs of conventional buildings the imposing stone cathedrals, decorated with lace near-gem carving, was the most important and the most prominent creature of the Gothic (which many researchers think the national French style). It is the fruit of sophisticated human mind, and inspired creativity of gifted artists, and at the same time and long, sometimes two-three-centuries-old labor and self-sacrifice of the people obsessed by the idea of atonement of sin through the earthly service of God
. The artistic perfection of the Gothic structures is impossible without great quality works performed in workshops organized builders-professionals. Impressive integrity inherent in those buildings where the original plan significantly changed in the construction process, the subtleties of elaborate structure would be unattainable without new faces — who led the construction of a master Mason, for the most part remained unknown, and only here and there a named among the patterns of decoration, the so-called labyrinth on the stone floor of the Cathedral or depicted in sculpture