Frombork (Frombork) is a small city in Northern Poland, in the North-Western part of the Warmia and Mazury Voivodship, the County Braniewo located on the Vistula lagoon. The city consists of two parts — the town itself, located on the coastal lowlands, and the Cathedral ensemble, located on a hill. The Cathedral is surrounded by walls. The town originated as a fishing village, approximately in the fourth quarter of the XIII century. Until 1926 the Cathedral complex and the city were separate administrative units. Since its inception, the town was part of Prussia, the German state of the Crusader knights of the Teutonic order. In German, the town was called Frauenburg (it. Frauenburg) . Later, at the end of the XV century, after the signing of the second peace of thorn, the city went to Poland and got its current name. In the mid-fourteenth century settled here a Chapter of the Catholic Church that promoted development of various crafts – for serving the needs of the next settled clergy tailors, shoemakers, Smiths, bakers, jewelers, etc.
From the hill spreads a beautiful view of the Bay and the Vistula spit. The city is the center of water sports – sailing and ice-yacht. The town also attracts tourists to the international Festival of organ music. It is held every Sunday from late June to August. Now the population of the town is about three thousand people. And there are days when it is a third of uvelichivaetsya tourists. This is especially noticeable in the summer season from 15 may to 15 September, when between Kaliningrad, Krynica Frombork and open Sea shipping line.
But first of all, the town is known as the city where the most fruitful part of his life spent Copernicus . He was a Canon of the Cathedral pomorskogo and lived in Frombork from 1510 until his death in 1543. In one of the towers of the wall surrounding the Cathedral, he equipped the Observatory, the library and the storage of astronomical instruments. It was in Frombork Nicolaus Copernicus created his greatest work “On the rotation of celestial bodies” . Tomb, where the ashes of Copernicus, is the Cathedral, which stands on a hill above the city.
Since its founding in 1261, Rombalski the Cathedral was the center of diocese. The Cathedral is surrounded by walls, is one of the biggest in Poland, a Gothic building with three naves, approx. 97 m, width of 12 m (the presbytery) to 22 m (main building), the height from floor to vault is 16,5 m. the Construction of the largest in the Warmia Cathedral was completed in 1388. The Cathedral dedicated to the Holy virgin Mary and St the Apostle Andrew.
Another noteworthy building inside the Cathedral is the bishops Palace . It is a Gothic building in the Baroque (14th-18th century). It houses the Museum of Copernicus. Here you can visit exhibitions: “Nicolaus Copernicus”, “Monuments of culture Formica”, ” History of astronomy “, as well as temporary exhibitions on various subjects.
The highest building is a Gothic bell tower in Baroque style 2nd half of the 17th century which rests on 8-coal basis (Oktagon) of the former artillery complex of the 14th century. It burnt down in 1945 and was remodeled in 1972-1973 the First floor has a planetarium with equipment company Carl Zeiss, which can on the dome of 8 m diameter to represent the starry sky of different places, years and seasons. On the upper floors in summer, there are contemporary art exhibitions.
In the belfry hangs a Foucault pendulum . only in Poland, confirming the rotation of the Earth. C terrace of the bell tower (70 m above sea level) has an amazingly beautiful view of the surroundings.
In the North-Western part of the fortification is the oldest building, the so-called “Tower of Copernicus” . Interesting historic buildings are outside the walls . In the West and South are home – Kanonia street, first mentioned in sources in 1310
In the Eastern part of the city is another attractive historic building: the former asylum St. The spirit of the Gothic chapel of SV. Anna of the 14th century. In 1978 – 1989 renovated and adapted for Museum Department of the history of medicine. Preserved valuable elements: wall painting (early XV century) in the chapel of St. Anne, depicting scenes of the last judgment; two extremely rare bath furnace from the beginning of the XV century – visitors can see them thanks to the archaeological excavations; the epitaphs of the seventeenth century and the pulpit (pulpit) from the XVIII century In the halls of the former hospital houses the exhibits of the Department of the history of medicine and the exposition of Warmia sculptures and paintings of the XVII-XVIII centuries. C South side of the building is the Botanical garden – herbarium – c herbs.
As well as other historical monuments they suffered in 1945 Only in the 1978-1980 period was carried out reconstruction and then it hosted the Museum of ” History and medicine “.
Main Museum ticket office, information Desk for tourists and the room guides are located at the South gate.
Astronomical Observatory . located 1.5 km South – West from Frombork. On the hill 47 m V. in. M. (the so-called crane mountain) are the pavilions c instruments for observing the sky (telescopes, telescope), an observation terrace and the building c of the laboratory and a reference library. The Observatory is mainly didactic purposes.