France. Chartres Cathedral.
“Now do not build Gothic cathedrals. In the old days people had convictions; we, the contemporaries, there is only opinion, and opinion is not enough to create a Gothic temple.”…

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Underground construction
The concept of the Gothic style introduced during the Renaissance as a contemptuous reference to medieval architecture. In the nineteenth century chronologically divided the Gothic in its early, Mature and…

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Ancient underground structures

The report is written only on the basis of requests and a deep respect for my old colleagues J. p. Baclawski (C. R.) and R. Biliki (Germany), the latter of which was also my boss under the line of ITT in the second half of 90-ies.

6. Underground structures for special purposes

This term means tens of kinds and types of underground facilities, separate facilities are not quite traditional. The region is infinitely large. This report will mention only a few.

6.1. Underground structures for the purposes of science

Need of scientific support for the development of nuclear industry, energy and weapons resulted in the need for immediate construction in the Moscow region, Siberia and other places of several large research complexes. /5/.

For example, in the early 50-ies was built on the North of Moscow region Dubna. In it for the Physical Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences was built sinhrofazatron energy 10 GeV, the cyclotron of highly charged ions of 120 MeV. most complex research installations .

Serpukhov synchrotron

The construction of a circular proton accelerator – the world’s largest synchrotron at the energy of 50 – 60 GeV was grandiose and difficult and expensive facility. It is placed near the city of Serpukhov, now many professionals in the world engaged in research in the nuclear field, they know the settlement Protvino. In 1958 the construction of the synchrotron was commissioned by the Government to carry out to the best professionals in the industry of military builders of the USSR Ministry of middle engineering. The construction was headed by General M. M. Tsarev, which tens years of building a large and complex industrial facilities, including the first industrial nuclear reactor.

The complex is a two-storey circular tunnel with a length of about 1 km at a depth of 8 meters or more from the ground surface, the construction of which is designed 384 thousand m 3 of soil. The tunnel, both floors of which are filled with equipment and communications, is one of the most important elements that determine the capacity of the facility. I had the opportunity to visit and explore the entire complex including the tunnel in the middle of 80-ies. With greatest satisfaction still perceive the highest quality of work performed by the soldiers, officers, civilian personnel of the construction organization.

In the second half of 80-ies it was decided to sharp increase in power sinhrofazatron due to the subsequent acceleration of particles by an additional annular magnetic core of length 20 km.

Currently, the ring tunnel is completed panels Ø 5.5 m, partly mining method. The internal lining of tunnel lining lined steel =8-10 mm. To bore the tunnel passed at least 20 mines Ø 6.0 m depth from 30 – 40 m to 90 – 120 m, a large experimental hall, many of the supporting underground facilities.

Today the work of thousands of builders for many years worth probably several hundred million $ is in unfinished form.

^ Underground trap for neutrinos

In 1967 in Kabardino-Balkaria channelstate “Bamtonnelstroy” launched the construction of the Baksan neutrino Observatory.

The Observatory is housed in a tunnel built in the mountain of andyrchi. Half a kilometer from the portal in an underground hall, twice indoor tennis courts, is a telescope equipped with a 3200 detectors. In the second room, located 3.5 km from the mouth of the tunnel at a depth of 1270 m from the ground surface is gallium – germanium neutrino telescope. Its installation was completed in 1987

Here for the first time in the world was measured integral flux of particles produced in the Solar interior. Research is conducted jointly with scientists from USA, Japan. Two scientists from these countries in 2002 became winners of the Nobel prize (250 thousand $ each) on this latest direction knowledge of the cosmos. Among the winners of Russian scientists no.

6.2. Underground warehouses

First of all, unlike Western Europe and the USA, such facilities built in the USSR, apparently, very little. This is due to many factors, chief of which are maloveroyatno engineering-geological and topographical conditions in most parts of the country, as well as the lack of financial resources for these purposes even in the prosperous period of development of the country.

In the Transcaucasian republics, Moldova and possibly Ukraine underground warehouses literally in single quantities built and operated.

For example, in 1959 – 1965 “Culturaliste” commissioned Kvareli underground wine storage capacity of 2 million dal. The layout of the underground repository consists of 2 transport tunnel, 390 m, and 13 vertical tunnels each with length of 500 m.

Cross-sectional area of all the tunnels of 13 m 2. The total length of tunnels 6584 m. it also has a library of wines in the room the length is 13.5 (the cross-section of 16 m 2 ) with a connecting tunnel liftovoj mines to a depth of 40 m. the mine provides transport connection tasting room on the surface with the underground complex.

In 1981 – 1987 in Adjara (Georgia) built Helvachaursky growers of tunnel type 10,000 tons of storage.

6.3. Underground structures for defense purposes

The naval fortress of Vladivostok

The Governor-General of Eastern Siberia N. N. Muravyov was ordered in 1860 on the basis of a military post in the Harbor of Vladivostok. From that time until 1917, there has been a continual construction and improvement of the fortress with the purpose of increasing its combat power. /6/.

Since 1932 and until the end of the Second World war was again carried out huge work on strengthening the fortress in connection with the threat of attack from the sea. In 1932 was established the Vladivostok naval defense region, whose task was the defence of adjacent territories. For description of fortifications, including underground, it would take an entire book /6/ 262 page volume it Should be noted that this dozens, perhaps, hundreds of different buildings constructed by open and closed methods. Engineers-tonnelschiki most countries could significantly improve your erudition by profession, if not previously vultures, as well as in the handling of knowledge in the form accepted for civil engineers.

For example, in the early twentieth century in the rocky underground of the fortress at a depth of several tens of meters have been built a long tunnel to the ammunition magazines section 40 – 60 m 2 block with the national team concrete lining with the original explosion protection. Its basic elements serve as the second light lining located a short distance from the main around the perimeter of the walls and vault of the tunnels.

Impressive and today the tunnels barracks, shelters and shelters, underground warehouses for various purposes with various types of reliable vehicles.

Underground complex large-calibre coastal batteries of projects 30-ies, which are located in multi-storey underground structures depth of 20 – 30 m, where there were all independent systems for vital functions, is an example of the sophistication and perfection of design solutions vertical and horizontal underground structures.

There was also the need for the construction of transport tunnels. So to maneuver heavy railway artillery for the guns of 356 mm (length of the shafts 52 caliber) from 1932 to 1935 there was built a railway tunnel with a length of 1380 m forces Special corps of railway troops.

^ Underground missile positions

Missile weapon is a fairly ancient invention. Before the 40-ies of XX century. he was given a traditional purely auxiliary role.

However, in 1944, humanity was forced to dramatically change their attitude toward him. During the night of 13 June 1944, the forces of 155 flak regiment of the Luftwaffe 65 army corps for special purposes in England was launched 10 cruise missiles V-1, September 8, 1944 over London came a thunderous rumble flying ballistic V-2 rockets that hit the area of Chiswick. Missile launch was carried out 91st artillery command of the armed forces above corps.

These first rocket attacks informed the world about the emergence of a new formidable weapon. /7/.

The victorious countries studied the path traversed by the German designers, industry and the military. This probably gave a lot of useful information. /8/.

The USA as a powerful country with a large gap ahead. In 1962, there were 203 deployed ICBMs. The USSR had ICBMs with 56 low operational reliability. In the future, this gap continued to grow. Then has been crossed by both sides the limit of reasonable sufficiency, leading both sides to exhaustion. And then the negotiations…! The launch of missiles from the mines began almost simultaneously in the USA and the USSR. The start of the first R-12 from the mines of Kapustin Yar was carried out in September of 1959 /9/. The missile had a length of 22 m, maximum body diameter 1.65 m, launch mass