The concept of the Gothic style introduced during the Renaissance as a contemptuous reference to medieval architecture. In the nineteenth century chronologically divided the Gothic in its early, Mature and late.
First of all, this style developed in the countries with the Catholic faith. Feudal-ecclesiastical the foundations of society was reflected in the ideology and culture of that era. Gothic was used for the display of cults, religious figures and events. This style is inextricably linked with the idea of “higher” mind, irrational forces — God.
For the Gothic style is characterized by allegory, the conventional image of reality. The dominant place occupied by the architectural complex of cathedrals, as an example of symbiosis at the same time architecture, painting and sculpture. Believers strong impression had huge columns, colorful stained-glass Windows, the sculptures on which the characters were much more than a man at the foot of the temple.
The development of Gothic architecture coexisted with the General changes in the society of France. Began to form States, inhabitants moved to the cities. Establish trade routes to the East. The development of the social Sciences led to the emergence of new philosophies, developing Handicrafts and urban development.
The architecture in the cities represented in the secular buildings, bridges, fountains, fortifications. Podobnuyu and today it is easy to see on the streets of small French towns. The main square is usually surrounded with low-rise houses with cancers, beneath them were the stalls and shopping stalls. From the centre of the parted rows of streets with narrow facades of two or three-storey houses. The locks, which originally served the role of solely protecting, over time, turned into a single complex of different buildings. The dominant place occupied by the Cathedral, it stood out as its height and decoration site. It held mass religious events, camps, debates. The Cathedral was a symbol of the center of the world. On the facade and the walls of the building depicted religious scenes and saints Genesis. All this, coupled with the size of the construction instilled in believers the idea of the rule of “higher power” over the lives of mere mortals.
The building frame was made of poles, later of beams columns and arches. In the French Gothic stories are enriched, thanks to the symbiosis of several kinds of art. The architecture and painting of the era shows the representation of the outside world. The Romanesque figures of the closed type was replaced by agile, dynamic figures, they seem to turn to each other and to the viewer. Over time, there is interest in all spheres of life, the beauty and sensuality of human nature. A new branch has been the theme of motherhood, sacrifice of man.